From 1939 to 1941
C. T. Loo & Company, New York from at least March 1939 
Freer Gallery of Art, purchased from C. T. Loo & Company on September 29, 1941 
 See C. T. Loo's stockcard no. 81926a: "Bell (chung) Bottom decorated by a panel of turning dragons pattern. Large bosses formed by coiled snakes separated by registers of intertwined dragons motives. Handle formed by 2 birds, swallowing the tail with spreaded wings over an intertwined snakes pattern. Rough green patina. Late Chou," C. T. Loo & Frank Caro Archive, Musée Guimet, Paris, copy in object file. The object was sent to the Freer Gallery for examination on May 2, 1939.
 See C. T. Loo's invoice, dated September 29, 1941, copy in object file.
- Previous Owner(s)
C.T. Loo & Company 1914-1948
The elaborate décor of this bell--winged creatures form its suspension loop and coiled serpents serve as bosses (raised decorations)--underscores the exalted status of bronze bells, which were a luxury restricted to China's early rulers and elite. Most bells belonged to tuned sets of bell-chimes, an instrument invented in China. They were suspended from a rack and struck by a mallet. When this object was cast, bell music was no longer purely ritual in purpose but was also considered entertainment in feudal courts. Owning a set of bells was thought to bring great happiness to a family.
- Published References
- George W. Weber Jr. The Ornament of Late Chou Bronzes: A Method of Analysis. New Brunswick. pl. 52.
- William Watson. The Art of Dynastic China. New York, 1981. ill. 262.
- Sekai bijutsu zenshu [A Complete Collection of World Art]. 40 vols., Tokyo, F1951-1953. cat. 81-82, vol. 2.
- Mizuno Seiichi. In Shu seidoki to tama [Bronzes and Jades of Ancient China]. Tokyo. pls. 152-153.
- Hai wai i chen [Chinese Art in Overseas Collections]. Taipei, 1985. vol. 2: p. 125.
- Chugoku bijutsu [Chinese Art in Western Collections]. 5 vols., Tokyo, 1972-1973. vol. 4: fig. 72.
- Noel Barnard. Bronze Casting and Bronze Alloys in Ancient China. Monumenta serica, no. 14 Canberra. pl. 29.
- Jenny F. So. Eastern Zhou Ritual Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Ancient Chinese Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections, vol. 3 New York, 1995. vol. 3. p. 377, 447, fig. 77.4, M43.
- Grace Dunham Guest, Archibald Gibson Wenley. Annotated Outlines of the History of Chinese Arts. Washington, 1949. p. 4.
- Compiled by the staff of the Freer Gallery of Art. A Descriptive and Illustrative Catalogue of Chinese Bronzes: Acquired During the Administration of John Ellerton Lodge. Oriental Studies Series, no. 3 Washington, 1946. pp. 7, 64-65, pl. 34-35.
- Michael Sullivan. The Arts of China., 3rd ed. Berkeley. p. 45.
- Sherman Lee. A History of Far Eastern Art. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964. p. 45, fig. 38.
- Dagny Carter. Four Thousand Years of China's Art. New York. pp. 48-49.
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
- Web Resources
- Google Cultural Institute
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