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For centuries after the historical Buddha transcended the cycle of rebirth (samsara), artists refrained from depicting his human form. Instead, they portrayed the presence of the Buddha with thrones he had sat upon, trees he had meditated under, and paths he had walked. Here, the visit of a royal couple to the living Buddha is represented by their worship of a flower-strewn throne beneath a garlanded wheel (chakra), which together indicate the Buddha and his teachings.
- Published References
- Vidya Dehejia. Stupas and Sculptures of Early Buddhism. vol. 2, no. 3 New York, Summer 1989. .
- Dr. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. The Two Reliefs from Bharhut in the Freer Gallery. Calcutta, June/December 1938. pl. 35.
- Dr. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. La Sculpture de Bharhut. Bibliotheque d'art, nouvelle serie; 6 Paris. pl. 25, fig. 66.
- Dr. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. History of Indian and Indonesian Art. New York and London. pl. 13, fig. 45.
- Dr. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. Elements of Buddhist Iconography. Cambridge, Massachusetts. pl. 5, fig. 18.
- Capolavori nei secoli: Enciclopedia di tutte i popoli in tutti i tempi. 12 vols., Milan, 1961 - 1964. vol. 3: p. 162.
- Ludwig Bachhofer. Early Indian Sculpture. 2 vols., New York. pl. 28.
- Aschwin Lippe. The Freer Indian Sculptures. Oriental Studies Series, no. 8 Washington, 1970. pl. 4.
- Paths to Perfection, Buddhist Art at the Freer/Sackler. Washington. pp. 26-27.
- (Forward) Pupul Jayakar. Festival of India in the United States, 1985-1986. New York. p. 61.
- Anne Bancroft. Religions of the East. New York. p. 84.
- Donald S. Lopez Jr, Rebecca Bloom. Hyecho's Journey: The World of Buddhism. Chicago, IL, December 2017. p. 157, fig. 16.
- Report from America (East Coast). New Series, vol. 31, no. 3, Autumn 1985. p. 315.
- Mizuno Seiichi, Yukio Kobayashi. Zukai kokogaku jiten [Dictionary of Archaeology]. Tokyo. p. 902.
- Collection Area(s)
- South Asian and Himalayan Art
- Web Resources
- Google Cultural Institute
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