Two-tier tube (cong 琮) with masks

Artist: Liangzhu culture 良渚 (ca. 3300-ca. 2250 BCE)
Historical period(s)
Late Neolithic period, ca. 3300-2250 BCE
Jade (nephrite)
H x W x D: 6.5 x 9.5 x 9.4 cm (2 9/16 x 3 3/4 x 3 11/16 in) Diam (hole): 6.2 cm (2 7/16 in)
China, Lake Tai region, purportedly found at Xiaxi, Zhejiang province
purportedly found at Xiaxi, Zhejiang province
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number
On View Location
Freer Gallery 19: Afterlife: Ancient Chinese Jades
Ceremonial Object, Jade

Ceremonial object

China, Late Neolithic period (ca. 5000 - ca. 1700 BCE), nephrite

Excavated in Hsia-hsi, Chekiang [1]

To 1916
You Xiaoxi, Shanghai, to 1916 [2]

From 1916 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from You Xiaoxi, in New York in 1916 [3]

From 1920
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [4]


[1] According to Curatorial Remark 8, J. Murray, 1982, "A review of the Original Miscellaneous list shows this object was excavated in Hsiaki, Chekiang."

[2] See Original Miscellaneous List, S.I. 1045, pg. 233, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.

[3] See note 2.

[4] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s)

Charles Lang Freer 1854 - 1919
You Xiaoxi (C.L. Freer source) late 19th-early 20th century

Published References
  • You Xiaoxi, Hsiao-chi Yu in, Chi-Tseng Chang. Masterpieces of Chinese National Art: The Collection of Mr. Seaouke'e Yue. Shanghai, 1916. no. 20.
  • Geoffrey WIlls. Jade of the East., 1st ed. New York, 1972. fig. 7.
  • Julia Murray. Neolithic Chinese Jades in the Freer Gallery of Art. vol. 14, no. 11 Hong Kong, November 1983. p. 19.
  • Sherman Lee. The Freer's Studies in Connoisseurship (Review): Museum News. vol. 44, no. 1 New York, Spring 1984. p. 69, fig. 9.
  • Elizabeth Childs-Johnson Fang Gu. Yuqi shidai: Meiguo bowuguan cang Zhongguo zaoqi yuqi (The Jade Age: Early Chinese Jades in American Museums). Beijing, 2009. p. 107.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Jades for Life and Death
Google Cultural Institute
Rights Statement

Copyright with museum