Arhat (Panthaka)

Artist: Ryƍzen (ca. 1328-ca. 1360)
Historical period(s)
Nanbokucho period, mid-14th century
Ink and color on silk panel
H x W (image): 113.7 x 59.4 cm (44 3/4 x 23 3/8 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view

Hanging scroll

Arhat, Buddhism, cave, Chuda-Panthaka, Japan, Nanbokucho period (1333 - 1392)

Shibata Zeshin (1807-1895), purchased from Sanseizenji temple, Kyoto, 1855

Mr. Shibata, from his father, Shibata Zeshin, to 1904 [1]

From 1904 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Mr. Shibata, through Bunkio Matsuki (1867-1940), in 1904 [2]

From 1920
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [3]


[1] See Accession List for purchase information, as well as the folder for F1904.295. See also, Original Kakemono and Makimono List, S.I. 16, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. One of a set of sixteen: F1904.295-F1904.310. Also see F1904.311-F1904.313.

[2] See note 1.

[3] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s)

Mr. Shibata (C.L. Freer source)
Shibata Zeshin 1807-1891
Charles Lang Freer 1854 - 1919


This painting (from a set of sixteen) depicts arhats, sages who have reached enlightenment through the teachings of the Historical Buddha Shakyamuni. Their facial expressions reflect their superior wisdom and the intensity of their vow to protect the Buddhist law (dharma) after Shakyamuni's death. At ceremonies held regularly in some Buddhist temples on the fifteenth day of every month, a set of paintings representing each of the sixteen principal arhats is displayed with a central sculpture or painting of Shakyamuni. This hanging scroll comes from a set that once belonged to the Sanshogokokuzenji, a sub temple of the Tofukuji, a major Zen Buddhist monastery in Kyoto.

Published References
  • Butsuga Ruijyuu. Vol. 1, Japan. .
  • Zaigai hiho (Japanese Paintings in Western Collections). 3 vols., Tokyo. p. 45.
Collection Area(s)
Japanese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
Rights Statement

Copyright with museum