Five Luohan with Attendants Crossing the Ocean

Patron: Empress Dowager Cisheng (1546-1614)
Historical period(s)
Ming dynasty, ca. 1610
Ink and color on silk
H x W (image): 146.9 x 81.5 cm (57 13/16 x 32 1/16 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Freer Gallery of Art
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view

Hanging scroll (mounted on panel)

Arhat, Buddhism, China, cloud, drum, fly whisk, halo, Ming dynasty (1368 - 1644), prayer beads, turtle, wave

To 1911
Loon Gu-sai, Beijing, to 1911 [1]

From 1911 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Loon Gu-sai in 1911 [2]

From 1920
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [3]


[1] See Original Kakemono and Makimono List, L. 840, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. According to Ingrid Larsen, "'Don’t Send Ming or Later Pictures': Charles Lang Freer and the First Major Collection of Chinese Painting in an American Museum," Ars Orientalis vol. 40 (2011), Loon Gu Sai was possibly Lunguzhai, a store in the antiques district of Liulichang.
This object exhibits seals, colophons, or inscriptions that could provide additional information regarding the object’s history; see Curatorial Remarks in the object record for further details.

[2] See note 1.

[3] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s)

Loon Gu Sai (C.L. Freer source)
Charles Lang Freer 1854-1919

Published References
  • Suzuki Kei. Chugoku kaiga sogo zuroku [Comprehensive Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Painting]. 5 vols., Tokyo, 1982-1983. vol. 1: p. 251.
  • Chun-fang Yu. Latter Days of the Law: Images of Chinese Buddhism, 850-1850. Exh. cat. Lawrence, Kansas and Honolulu. p. 61, fig. 11.
  • Qingxiang Chen. Jie di Aluohan: Zhongguo fo hua zhi mei. Louhan pian: Unveil Arhats: Encounter the Arhats; Broaden your Mind. The Beauty of the Chinese Buddhistic Paintings. The Part of Arhat. Exh. cat. Taipei. pp. 66-67.
  • Wu Meifeng. A Note on Ming Dynasty Court Painting History-Beginning with the “Painted and Made” Inscription by the Empress Dowager Cisheng (1546-1614). vol. 10, 2013. pp. 267-310.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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