Look at the center of the painting and find the large seated figure wearing red. That is the (chee-en-long) Emperor, who reigned in China from 1735 to 1796. He is shown as an embodiment of (mahn-joo-shree), the (bo-dee-saht-vah) an enlightened being who chooses not to proceed to Nirvana but instead remains on earth to guide others in their paths toward enlightenment. of Wisdom. The emperor raises his right hand in the gesture of debate or teaching while supporting the wheel of the law in his left. He also holds two stems of lotus blossoms on which lie a (soo-truh) a Buddhist holy writing or text. and a sword—objects typically associated with Manjushri. Qianlong is pictured among 108 divine beings; gods and/or goddesses. (an successful or prosperous; a sign of future success number in (bood-ihz-uhm) a widespread Asian religion or philosophy founded by Siddartha Gautama in northeastern India in the 5th century BCE.) who represent his Buddhist lineage. In the disk directly above the cloud surrounding the emperor’s image sits his Tibetan Buddhist teacher, Rol-pa’I rdo-rje (1717–1786), with whom he had a very close relationship. The landscape is filled with auspicious clouds. The background is believed to be (woo tie-shahn), a sacred mountain in China. The rich details and bright colors of the painting indicate that it was made for relating to an empire, an emperor, or the home of royals. use. The completely accurate depiction of the emperor’s face demonstrates the skill of Giuseppe Castiglione, an Italian (jezh-oo-iht) a member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola. painter serving at the Qianlong court.
The (chee-en-long) Emperor was the ruler of the world’s largest and most prosperous empire in the eighteenth century. He was also the Chinese emperor who brought the combination of religious and secular authority together in one person. This painting is a testimony to the multicultural nature of his court and empire. A (man-choo) ethnic group that lived for centuries in the northeast of modern-day China. In the seventeenth century CE, Manchu people conquered China and ruled there for more than 250 years. who ruled over China, the emperor was portrayed in the center of a (thahng-kuh) a Tibetan-style painted or textile image, traditionally mounted in brocade, that conveys Buddhist concepts., a Tibetan Buddhist religious painting. He called upon Giuseppe Castiglione, an Italian missionary known for his skill to capture a person’s true likeness, to paint his face. By having himself portrayed as (mahn-joo-shree), he positioned himself solidly in the Buddhist hierarchy that was important to the Mongol and Tibetan residents of the empire.
This painting belongs to a small group of eight similar, imperially commissioned works that depict the (chee-en-long) Emperor as the (bo-dee-saht-vah) an enlightened being who chooses not to proceed to Nirvana but instead remains on earth to guide others in their paths toward enlightenment. (mahn-joo-shree). The detailed background of the painting, including the jewel-like landscape and 108 Buddhist figures, would have been painted first by an relating to an empire, an emperor, or the home of royals. workshop team of Chinese and Tibetan artists. Castiglione would then have been called upon to finish the emperor’s face. This is a standard procedure in Chinese painting workshops. This painting reveals artists from China and Europe collaborating and melding different artistic traditions within a single artwork.
- Look at this painting as a whole. What colors, shapes, and figures can you see? Does the painting remind you of anything you have seen before?
- How did the artist decide to organize the elements in the painting? Which figures or elements of the painting did the artist consider the most important? How can you tell?
- Zoom in on one area of the painting. What new details do you notice? What can you tell about how the artwork was painted?
- Why do you think the (chee-en-long) Emperor would have a an image of a person, usually focused on their face and shoulders. of himself like this made? What does it say about him as a ruler?