June 29, 2021
8:00 am – 10:00 am (Washington D.C.)
2:00 pm – 4:00 pm (Paris)
8:00 pm – 10:00 pm (Beijing)

Valérie Lee

Dean, Book and Paper Conservation Program
National Institute of Patrimony (INP), France
valerie.lee@inp.fr

A Global Melting Pot for Paper Conservators

Twenty-five years ago, I had the opportunity to train as a Western paper conservator in France and as an East Asian painting conservator at the Freer Gallery of Art. Currently dean of the Book and Paper Conservation Department at the National Institute of Patrimony (INP) in France, I teach the manual skills I have acquired from Western and Eastern professionals to the next generation of paper conservators. The National Institute of Patrimony is a unique school in Europe that welcomes both curators and conservators. Only four students enter the book and paper conservation program each year.

In the first part of my presentation, I will discuss the French paper conservation program, including the five-year curriculum of conservation practice and the types of paper and parchment treatments that are taught. I will then compare traditional Asian painting conservation with INP training. Even though the length of conservation education is similar, the teaching techniques are quite different. In Asia, one conservation skill, such as cutting paper or preparing paste, has to be known perfectly before moving on to the next skill. Therefore, it takes time for a student to be able to carry out a full conservation treatment on their own. In the West, full conservation treatment is taught from the first year and the level of difficulty is raised slowly. However, students can lack dexterity at the beginning of the learning process.

In the second part of the presentation, I will discuss the use of both Western and Eastern conservation techniques to carry out remedial treatments on Asian paintings. Remedial treatments aimed at reinforcing the structure of hanging scrolls to stop active deterioration processes are performed. These treatments are often used in France for East Asian paintings on scrolls acquired by collectors in the nineteenth century. For French museums, the whole aspect of the painting and its mounting is important to preserve because it is a testimony to the taste of the collector. Remedial treatments and some specific rehousing devices allow the original mount to be kept for years. Some Asian paintings are also restored at INP to teach students to preserve Asian art. To illustrate this, I will present the conservation process of a large Laotian painting that belongs to the National Diplomatic Archives. Auguste Pavie, a famous French diplomat who stayed in present-day Laos in the late nineteenth century, bought this artwork. It mixes East Asian pigments and French Canson paper. By restoring this painting, the students had the opportunity to use both Western and Eastern conservation techniques and were able to work as a team. The knowledge sharing that started twenty years ago has come full circle, from East to West.

Biography

Valérie Lee is a paper conservator and the dean of the Book and Paper Conservation Program at the National Institute of Patrimony (INP), France. She graduated from INP in 1997 and trained as a Chinese painting conservator at the Freer Gallery of Art from 1997 until 2003. She worked as a freelance conservator for East Asian paintings and Western prints at the Tokyo National Museum from 2005 until 2011. She specializes in remedial treatments for East Asian paintings and is also using Eastern conservation techniques for the conservation of Western artworks. She is currently a PhD student at CY Cergy Paris University. Her research topic is the use of artificial intelligence to recognize book binding alterations.

발레리 리

고서 및 지류 보존 프로그램 학장
프랑스 국립문화유산연구소(INP)
valerie.lee@inp.fr

글로벌 용광로 속에 융합되는 지류 보존과학자

25년전 발표자는 프랑스에서 서양 지류 보존과학자로 그리고 미국 프리어 미술관에서 동아시아 회화 보존과학자로서 훈련을 받았다. 현재는 프랑스 국립문화유산연구소(Institut National du Patrimoine, 약칭 INP) 고서 및 지류 보존학과 학장으로서 동서양의 전문가로부터 전수받은 기술을 다음 세대의 지류 보존과학자에게 교육하고 있다. 프랑스 국립문화유산연구소는 유럽에 소재한 특수 교육 기관으로 학예사와 보존과학자를 양성하고 있으며, 고서 및 지류 보존 프로그램에서는 매년 4명의 학생만을 선발하고 있다.

발표의 전반부에서는 프랑스 지류 보존과학 프로그램에 대해 논의하고자 한다. 먼저 5년제 과정의 보존과학 실습 커리큘럼과 지류와 양피지 보존 처리 방법의 종류에 대해 소개하겠다. 다음으로 INP의 교육훈련 과정을 전통 동양회화 보존 처리 교육훈련 과정과 비교해보겠다. 보존과학을 교육하는 기간은 서로 비슷하지만 교육 방법에 있어서는 상당한 차이를 보인다. 동양에서는 종이 자르기나 풀 만들기와 같은 하나의 작업이 완벽하게 습득되어야 다음 단계로 나아갈 수 있다. 따라서 학생 본인이 보존 처리의 전과정을 맡아서 수행하기까지는 상당한 시간을 필요로 한다. 반면 서양에서는 1년차 과정에서부터 보존 처리의 전과정을 가르치며 난이도를 점진적으로 높이는 방식을 채용한다. 하지만 학습 초기 단계에서는 학생의 숙련도가 부족할 수 있는 단점이 있다.

발표의 후반부에서는 동양 회화를 보존 처리하는데 있어 동양과 서양의 회화 보존 기법이 어떻게 사용되는지를 소개하겠다. 회화 작품의 보존 처리 목적은 족자의 구조를 보강하여 더 이상의 손상을 방지하기 위함이다. 이러한 기법은19세기 컬렉터에 의해 수집된 동양 회화를 대상으로 프랑스에서 자주 사용되었다. 프랑스 박물관에서는 작품을 비롯해 장황과 관련된 모든 부분을 중요한 보존 대상으로 여기는데 이는 컬렉터의 취향을 반영하고 있기 때문이다. 보존 처리와 특정 보존 용기는 원형의 장황이 오랜 기간 보존될 수 있도록 한다. INP에서는 학생들에게 아시아 미술 보존 기법을 가르치기 위해 동양 회화에 대한 보존 처리도 수행한다. 이에 대한 하나의 예로 프랑스 외교 아카이브에 소장되어 있는 대형 크기의 라오스 회화 보존 처리 과정을 소개하겠다. 이 작품은 프랑스 유명 외교관인 어거스트 파비에(August Pavie)가 19세기말 오늘날의 라오스에서 지내는 동안 구입한 것이다. 이 그림에는 동아시아의 안료와 프랑스 수채화지인 “캉송(Canson)” 종이가 사용되었다. 학생들은 이 회화를 복원하면서 동서양의 보존 기법을 사용하고 하나의 팀으로 작업하는 기회를 가질 수 있었다. 이처럼 20년 전에 시작된 지식의 교류가 동양에서 서양으로 전해지게 된 것이다.

약력

발레리 리(Valérie Lee)는 지류 보존과학자이자 프랑스 국립문화유산연구소(Institut National du Patrimoine) 고서 및 지류 보존 프로그램의 학장을 역임하고 있다. 1997년 프랑스 국립문화유산연구소를 졸업하고 1997년부터 2003년까지 미국 프리어 미술관에서 중국 회화 보존과학자로서 트레이닝을 받았다. 2005년부터 2011년까지는 일본 국립도쿄박물관에서 동아시아 회화 및 서양 판화 프리랜서 보존과학자로 활동하였다. 동아시아 회화의 보존 처리를 전문으로 하며 동양의 보존 기법을 서양 미술품에 활용하기도 한다. 현재 CY 세르지 파리 대학교에서 박사과정을 이수하고 있으며 인공지능을 이용한 책 장정의 수리 내용 파악을 주제로 연구하고 있다.


Ohbayashi, Kentaro

Professor, Department of Historical Heritage
Kyoto University of the Arts, Kyoto, Japan
k_ohbayashi@kua.kyoto-art.ac.jp

Education Needed for the Preservation and Restoration of Japanese Painting and Calligraphy

As a professor of historical heritage at Kyoto University of the Arts, my teaching has two objectives: to educate and train students in the conservation field as specialists, and to enlighten the general public. The education provided to students can be divided into three areas of specialization, summarized below.

Improving Expertise

Year after year, scientists have revealed new discoveries about Japanese mounted artworks. Because of these technical advancements in the work of restoration, the knowledge required to do this work has become much more specialized compared to the past. Therefore, it is almost too late to start learning after entering a conservation studio. It is more efficient for those who seek employment in a studio to study at university first.

Acquiring New Techniques for Restoration

Restoration techniques are slightly different in each conservation studio. Traditionally, it was often said that students should only learn the methods practiced in the studio where they trained. However, it is helpful to acquire new techniques, such as material analysis and recording methods, among others. These practical skills are developed through training in the classroom and by working at a conservation research center.

Training for Logical Thinking

The Association for Conservation of National Treasures has instituted a qualification system for its members. Conservators are given the opportunity to take a three-part examination—a practical exam, a written exam, and an interview—after ten years of work experience, and then again after sixteen. The successful candidate is granted the qualification of “chief conservator” (主任技術者) at ten years and “head conservator” (技師長) at sixteen. The studios have realized they must hire individuals who have the potential to pass these exams because of their restoration and management abilities. The exams test the ability to identify deterioration and damage of a given artwork, determine appropriate treatment measures according to the condition of the object, and perform a simulation of the conservation work needed. The students acquire this basic knowledge during my seminar while repairing the pieces entrusted to the research center at the university.

Conservation studios require individuals who desire to expand their knowledge and improve their skills and who are not satisfied with current techniques. I believe the most important skill to develop in these students is the ability to think logically. We can provide such detailed guidance only at graduate school. For that reason, it is now becoming more common to hire people who have attained this level of education. The Association for Conservation of National Treasures at the Kyoto National Museum, in association with five universities, has established a four-week internship contract for graduate students. Many of the interns subsequently find employment in a studio.

Enlightening the General Public

Just as training specialists is crucial, it is also essential to disseminate to the general public the beliefs that cultural property is important and that it must be protected. If the public is unaware of the value of handing down cultural property to future generations, we are dependent solely on the government as it exists in Japan today. When individuals become interested in and respect cultural property, they realize the importance of preserving this heritage for the sake of future generations. Therefore, my university’s research center must start hosting recurring educational opportunities, such as workshops or lectures, that allow us to share this information.

Biography

Kentaro Ohbayashi is currently a professor of historical heritage, director of graduate research in historical heritage, and deputy director of the Research Center for Japanese Garden Art and Historical Heritage at Kyoto University of the Arts. He is also vice president of the NPO Japan Conservation Project.

Ohbayashi was born in Kakogawa City, Hyōgo Prefecture, in 1960. He graduated from the History and Geography Department at Kansai University in 1984. That year, he joined the Oka Bokkodo Conservation Co., Ltd., in Kyoto. Since 2000, he has been the director of the Bunkazai Hozon Conservation Co., Ltd., in Nara.

He is involved in the preservation and conservation of cultural property, primarily paintings, calligraphy, and photography. Since 2006, he has taught at Kyoto University of the Arts.

Ohbayashi has published two books, Preservation and Restoration of Mounted Cultural Properties: Current Condition for East Asian Painting and Calligraphy (Association for Conservation of Treasures, 2015) and The Practice of Photographic Preservation (Iwata Shoin, 2010).

大林 賢太郎

芸術学部 歴史遺産学科教授
京都芸術大学
k_ohbayashi@kua.kyoto-art.ac.jp

日本の書画作品保存修理のための教育

私が大学で行っている教育は2つの方向性があると考えています。一つが専門家としての修理技術者の養成で、もう一つが一般市民への啓蒙です。

専門家教育1(専門知識の付与)

文化財について年々新しい事実が明らかになり、修理においても技術改革が行われたことにより、この仕事をする上で必要な知識は昔に比べて何倍にも多くなりました。そうなると、工房に入ってから学ぶのでは、間に合わなくなってきました。そうした部分を工房に就職する前に大学で学んでいれば効率的です。

専門家教育2(修理を助ける新技術の習得)

技術は工房ごとに微妙に違い、どこか別の工房の方法を身に付けてしまうと、支障があると言われています。しかし、材質の分析や記録の取り方など、新しい技術は身に付けておけば役に立ちます。こうした実技は、授業としての実習や研究センターでの作業を通じて習得します。

専門家教育3(論理的思考のトレーニング)

国宝修理装潢師連盟では技術者の資格制度がスタートしました。これにより、経験年数10年、16年の技術者に対して、実技試験、学科試験、面接試験の3段階の試験を行って、合格者に主任技術者、技師長の2つの資格を付与するようになりました。工房では経営上も、将来その試験に合格できる人材を採用しなくてはならなくなりました。この試験では、課題の作品に応じた劣化損傷を読み取り、条件に応じて修理仕様を定めて施工までのシミュレーションができているかを問う問題があります。こうした基礎的な知識や思考トレーニングは、研究センターでの受託作業をゼミ活動として修理しながら身に付けさせています。

工房で必要なのは、好奇心を持って知識を広げ、今の技術に満足せずに改善していく事のできる人材です。私は、そういった人材に育てるために最も重要なのは「論理的に考える力」だと思っています。そう言った密接な指導は、今では大学院でしかできません。そういうことも含めて、大学院を修了した人が雇われることが多くなってきました。現在、国宝修理装潢師連盟と5つの大学の間で大学院生の4週間のインターンシップ契約が結ばれており、その実習生の中から工房に就職する学生が多くいます。

一般市民への啓蒙

専門家を養成すると同時にしなくてはならないことは、文化財が素晴らしい物で、社会で護っていかなくてはならないものだと言うことを、より多くの人に浸透させることです。文化財を社会全体で継承していくという意識がなければ、現在の日本で進行しているように、行政頼みになってしまいます。それぞれが、文化財を残していこうと思う感情は、文化財に対して興味を持ち、敬意を払うようになって始めてわき起こってくるのです。そのためにセンターではリカレント講座やワークショップなどを実施して、様々な情報を共有する事から始めなくてはなりません。

経歴

現在、京都芸術大学芸術学部 歴史遺産学科教授、同大学院 歴史遺産研究領域長、同大学 日本庭園・歴史遺産研究センター副所長。NPO文化財保存支援機構副理事長。

1960年兵庫.県加古川市生まれ。1984年関西大学文学部史学地理学科卒業。同年京都㈱岡墨光堂入社。2000年より、奈良㈱文化財保存取締役。装潢文化財(絵画/書跡)・写真などの保存修復に携わる。2006年本学に着任し、現在に至る。

主要業績:著書『装潢文化財の保存修理 −東洋絵画・書跡修理の現在−』(国宝修理装潢師連盟、2015)、『写真保存の実務』(岩田書院、2010)。