By 1934 to 1948
Naiji Zhang (1899–1948), Shanghai, China then New York, NY 
1948 to early 1950s
Mei Chien Zhang (1901–c.1955), New York, NY inherited upon her husband’s death 
Possibly around 1954 to 1961
C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York, NY possibly purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY in the early 1950s 
Possibly from 1961 to 1964
Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, NY, mode of acquisition unknown 
Possibly to late 1950s
J. T. Tai & Company, New York, NY possibly purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY during July 1954 
Late 1950s to 1997
Dr. Paul Singer, Summit, NJ purchased from J. T. Tai & Company, C. T. Loo & Company, or Frank Caro Chinese Art in New York 
1997 to 1999
In the custody of Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, upon the death of Paul Singer in 1/1997 and a loan agreement in 2/1997 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of the Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, Paul Singer, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, and the Children of Arthur M. Sackler 
 Naiji Zhang lent to the International Exhibition of Chinese Art in London, 1935, see: Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Chinese Art (London, Royal Academy of Arts, November 18, 1935 – March 7, 1936), cat. 346.
 Naiji Zhang (also known as N.C. Chang) was a businessman, born to a prestigious family in Zhejiang that made their wealth in the silk and salt industries. He collected ancient Chinese art objects and Chinese coins. Zhang amassed his collection whilst living in Shanghai, before leaving for America in 1938, and acquired his objects onsite of archeological excavations (see: Alfred Salmony, Chinese Jade through the Wei Dynasty. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1963: 115.). C. T. Loo & Company, New York held Zhang’s collection on consignment from 1940 to 1948.
 Mei Chien Zhang, Zhang Naiji’s wife, assumed ownership upon his death in 1948. She sold several pieces from her husband’s collection to both C. T. Loo & Company (which later operated as Frank Caro Chinese Art) and J. T. Tai & Company. She sold to J. T. Tai & Company in July 1954 (for example, see J. T. Tai & Company Stock Record YT 886 and YT 895, copies in COM provenance files). It is unclear when C. T. Loo Chinese Art purchased items from Mei Chien Zhang. C. T. Loo Chinese Art was led by Frank Caro, the famed dealer C. T. Loo’s associate.
 See note 3. On September 1, 1952, C. T. Loo’s associate, Frank Caro (1904-1980) took over daily operations of the New York business, operating at C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo’s stock would be evenly divided and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company’s gallery space.
 In 1961, Loo and Caro’s agreement ended. C. T. Loo & Cie., Paris, France took control of C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York’s stock that C. T. Loo had added to the inventory before his death in 1957. Frank Caro then opened Frank Caro Chinese Art. Caro acquired pieces from Loo’s original stock (the mode of acquisition is unknown) and also featured jades with a Zhang provenance in his stock.
 See note 3. J. T. Tai & Company sold 17 jades from Zhang’s collection to Dr. Singer (see: Reminiscences of a Transient Custodian,” ms. Paul Singer Papers, FǀS Archives, p.83-84). Singer purchased the majority of these jades in 1958 and 1959.
 Dr. Paul Singer purchased the object from Frank Caro Chinese Art, C. T. Loo & Company, or J. T. Tai & Company. The collection of Chinese art and antiquities assembled by Paul Singer over time was purchased by him on behalf of Arthur M. Sackler, Jillian Sackler, The Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities and was later transferred to the children of Arthur M. Sackler.
 The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art came into the custody of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, upon Paul Singer’s death in 1997 and a loan agreement in 2/1997
 See “The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art Gift Agreement,” March 1999, FǀS COM Office. The object was formally accessioned into the museum collection in 2012.
- Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)
Zhang Naiji 1899-1948
Zhang Mei Chien 1900-1998
Dr. Paul Singer 1904-1997
C.T. Loo & Company 1914-1948
J.T. Tai & Co. established in 1950
C.T. Loo Chinese Art 1953-1961
Frank Caro Chinese Art 1962-1980
- Published References
- J. Keith Wilson, Jingmin Zhang. Jades for Life and Death. .
- Cheng Te-k'un. Archaeology in China. 3 vols., Cambridge, England. vol. 2: pl. 18e.
- Royal Academy of Arts. Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Chinese Art, 1935-36. Exh. cat. London. cat. 346.
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
- Web Resources
- Jades for Life and Death
- Google Cultural Institute
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