Bell (yong) with dragons from a set of six graduated bells (bianzhong), along with S1987.4 .6 & .8-.9

Historical period(s)
Spring and Autumn period, Eastern Zhou dynasty, ca. 525-475 BCE
H x W x D: 35.5 x 18.2 x 14.9 cm (14 x 7 3/16 x 5 7/8 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Arthur M. Sackler
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view
Metalwork, Musical Instrument


China, Eastern Zhou dynasty (770 - 221 BCE), Spring and Autumn period (770 - 476 BCE)

Emmanuel Gran (1894-1969) Shanghai, China; Los Angeles, CA; then New York, NY., purchased while living in China [1]

Emmanuel Gran and Delight (Philips) Gran (1912-1974), Los Angeles, CA; then New York, NY, jointly owned through marriage [2]

J. T. Tai & Company, New York, NY purchased from Delight Gran on June 27, 1954 in New York, NY [3]

Arthur M. Sackler, New York, NY purchased from J. T. Tai & Company on January 15, 1959 in New York, NY [4]

From 1987
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of Arthur M. Sackler on September 11, 1987 [5]


[1] See J. T. Tai & Company Stock Record, YT 875, copy in object file. Purchase from "Mrs. D. Gran" and sale to Sackler recorded. Noted that this object was purchased and sold as part of a set of six.

Emmanuel Gran was a Russian architect who lived in China, near Shanghai, from 1917 to 1941, where he built several large buildings, including the Cathy Hotel in Shanghai. Whilst living in China he amassed a large collection of Chinese antiquities. After the Japanese invasion of Shanghai, Gran and his collection relocated to Los Angeles, CA, arriving finally in 1941. In California, he designed ships for the American War Department and met and married Delight Philips. After the war, Gran began to design movie sets, however, he soon went to work for Hilton Hotels as the in-house architect and relocated to New York City.

[2] See note 1. Emmanuel Gran married Delight Philips sometime in the 1940s. We can assume they jointly owned the bell, as Delight Gran was responsible for its sale to J. T. Tai & Company, NY.

[3] See note 1.

[4] See note 1. The stock record indicates that all six bells were sold to Arthur M. Sackler on January 15, 1959.

[5] Pursuant to the agreement between Arthur M. Sackler and the Smithsonian Institution, dated July 28, 1982, legal title of the donated objects was transferred to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery on September 11, 1987.

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Emmanuel Gran
Delight Gran 1912 - 1974
Dr. Arthur M. Sackler 1913-1987
J.T. Tai & Co. established in 1950

Published References
  • Thomas Lawton. New Perspectives on Chu culture during the Eastern Zhou Period. Washington and Princeton, 1991. cover.
  • Jan Fontein, Wu Tung. Unearthing China's Past. Exh. cat. Boston. no. 14, pp. 51-52.
  • Xi Mengcao. Haiwai guizhen teji: Zhongguo qiqi [Chinese Treasures Overseas, a special collection at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery]. no. 71, July 1991. pp. 58 -74.
  • Ideals of Beauty: Asian and American Art in the Freer and Sackler Galleries. Thames and Hudson World of Art London and Washington, 2010. pp. 64-65.
  • Dawn Ho Delbanco. Art from Ritual: Ancient Chinese Bronze Vessels from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Exh. cat. Washington. cat. 68, pp. 154-155.
  • et al. Asian Art in the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery: The Inaugural Gift. Washington, 1987. cat. 152d, pp. 228-229.
  • Jenny F. So. Eastern Zhou Ritual Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Ancient Chinese Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections, vol. 3 New York, 1995. cat. 74, pp. 357-363.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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