As early as 1928
Likely discovered in Anyang, Honan Province, China. 
Zhang Naiji (1899–1948), Shanghai, China then New York, NY 
1948 to around 1954
Zhang Mei Chien (1901–c.1955), New York, NY inherited upon her husband’s death 
Possibly around 1954 to 1961
C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York, NY likely purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY 
Possibly from 1961 to 1964
Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, NY, mode of acquisition unknown 
Possibly from around 1954 to 1960s
J. T. Tai & Company, New York, NY possibly purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY 
At least by 1986 to 1987
Arthur M. Sackler, New York, NY, purchased from either C. T. Loo & Company or J. T. Tai & Company in New York, NY 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of Arthur M. Sackler, September 11, 1987 
 Discovery site noted in Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition (Philadelphia: The University Museum, February 1940), cat. 139. Excavations at Anyang began in 1928.
 Zhang Naiji (also known as N.C. Chang) was a businessman, born to a prestigious family in Zhejiang that made their wealth in the silk and salt industries. He collected ancient Chinese art objects and Chinese coins. Zhang amassed his collection whilst living in Shanghai, before leaving for America in 1938, and acquired his objects onsite of archeological excavations (see: Alfred Salmony, Chinese Jade through the Wei Dynasty. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1963: 115.).
Zhang lent his collection anonymously to Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition. We know his identity through letters housed in the Department of Archives, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (see: letter, C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 25 October 1939 and letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 16 December 1939), copies in FǀS COM provenance files. The exhibition was entirely organized by C. T. Loo & Company, New York. Letters exchanged between C. T. Loo and the director of The University Museum, Mr. Horace H.F. Jayne, reveal that Zhang Naiji owned the objects and C. T. Loo & Company had the collection on consignment (see: letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 28 May 1939 and letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 23 October 1940, copies on COM provenance files). C. T. Loo & Company kept the jade collection on consignment from 1940 through Zhang’s death in 1948, inventorying the pieces with a prefix “J” and labeling each item as “Chang Collection.”
 Zhang Mei Chien, Zhang Naiji’s wife, assumed ownership upon his death in 1948. She sold several pieces from her husband’s collection to both C. T. Loo & Company and J. T. Tai & Company. She sold to J. T. Tai & Company in July 1954 (for example, see J. T. Tai & Company Stock Record YT 886 and YT 895, copies in COM provenance files). It is unclear when C. T. Loo Chinese Art purchased items from Zhang Mei Chien.
 On September 1, 1952, C. T. Loo’s associate, Frank Caro (1904-1980) took over daily operations of C. T. Loo & Company, New York, operating at C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo’s stock would be evenly divided and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company’s gallery space.
 In 1961, Loo and Caro’s agreement ended. C. T. Loo & Cie., Paris, France took control of C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York’s stock that C. T. Loo had added to the inventory before his death in 1957. Frank Caro then opened Frank Caro Chinese Art. Caro acquired pieces from Loo’s original stock (the mode of acquisition is unknown). Frank Caro acquired several ancient jades from C. T. Loo Chinese Art and sold them to Dr. Sackler in the 1960s (for example, see: S1987.668 and S1987.644).
On August 27, 1964, Frank Caro Chinese Art sold Arthur M. Sackler nearly 50 jades with Zhang provenance. Arthur M. Sackler inventoried these objects with his own number system, labeling this object as J-1043. This object falls within a group of other jades that were purchased on August 27, 1964. It is possible S1987.689 came into Arthur M. Sackler’s collection on that day. It is possible that this object is the one that C. T. Loo and Frank Caro inventoried as “J-95: Archaic jade pendent in stylized bird form. Eastern Chou. Lt. 1- ½ ins. (Chang Collection).” See Invoice from Frank Caro, Chinese Art to Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, dated August 27, 1964, copy in object file.
 J. T. Tai & Company sold several jades from Zhang’s collection to Arthur M. Sackler (for example, see: S1987.653 and S 1987.607). Several of J. T. Tai & Company stock records also document the company’s sales of Zhang jades to Arthur M. Sackler (for example, see J. T. Tai & Company Stock Record YT 886 and YT 895, copies in COM provenance files).
 This object was inventoried by conservators of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery in 1986. It was part of Arthur M. Sackler’s foundational 1987 gift to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
 Pursuant to the agreement between Arthur M. Sackler and the Smithsonian Institution dated July 28, 1982, legal title of the donated objects was transferred to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery on September 11, 1987.
- Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)
Zhang Naiji 1899-1948
Zhang Mei Chien 1900-1998
Dr. Arthur M. Sackler 1913-1987
C.T. Loo & Company 1914-1948
J.T. Tai & Co. established in 1950
C.T. Loo Chinese Art 1953-1961
Frank Caro Chinese Art 1962-1980
The jagged profile of the spread wings of a bird suggests that it is a bat. The head shows two small ears. Both top and bottom surfaces are covered with incised linear patterns that follow the shape of the body and wings; the top patterns are executed in double lines, and the bottom, in single lines. A hole pierces the blunt head.
Translucent pale yellowish grey jade with darker brown patches; carved.
- Published References
- Chinese Jade Animals. Exh. cat. Hong Kong. cat. 16.
- John Johnston, Chan Lai Pik. 5000 Years of Chinese Jade. Exh. cat. San Antonio, Texas, 2011. cat. 21, p. 56.
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
- Web Resources
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