1928 to 1932
Purportedly unearthed in Henan province 
Zhang Naiji (1899--1948), Shanghai, China, then New York, NY 
1948 to early 1950s
Zhang Mei Chien (1901--ca. 1955), New York, NY, inherited upon her husband's death 
Around 1954 to 1961
C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York, NY, likely purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY 
1961 to 1964
Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, NY, mode of acquisition unknown 
From 1964 to 1987
Arthur M. Sackler, New York, NY, purchased from Frank Caro Chinese Art on August 27, 1964, in New York, NY 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of Arthur M. Sackler on September 11, 1987 
 The object is published in An Exhibition of Chinese Archaic Jades: Arranged for the Norton Gallery of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida (New York: C. T. Loo and Co., 1950), pl. 55, cat. 2 or cat. 4. The introduction suggests that the objects primarily came from archaeological sites that were unearthed between 1928 and 1932, including: Anyang, Jincun, and Shou xian.
 Zhang Naiji (also known as N. C. Chang) was a businessman, born to a prestigious family in Zhejiang that made their wealth in the silk and salt industries. He collected ancient Chinese art objects and Chinese coins.
Zhang amassed his collection whilst living in Shanghai, before leaving for America in 1938, and acquired his objects onsite of archaeological excavations (see Alfred Salmony, Chinese Jade through the Wei Dynasty [New
York: The Ronald Press Company, 1963], p. 115).
Zhang lent his collection anonymously to Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition. We know his identity through letters housed in the Department of Archives, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (see letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, October 25, 1939, and letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, December 16, 1939, copies in Freer and Sackler COM provenance files). The exhibition was entirely organized by C. T. Loo and Company, New York. Letters exchanged between C. T. Loo and the director of The University Museum, Mr. Horace H. F. Jayne, reveal that Zhang Naiji owned the objects and C. T. Loo and Company had the collection on consignment (see letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, May 28, 1939, and letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, October 23, 1940, copies in COM provenance files). C. T. Loo and Company kept the jade collection on consignment from 1940 through Zhang's death in 1948, inventorying the pieces with a prefix "J" and labeling each item as "Chang Collection." This piece is not included in the catalogue.
 Zhang Mei Chien, Zhang Naiji's wife, assumed ownership upon his death in 1948. She sold several pieces from her husband's collection to C. T. Loo and Company and J. T. Tai and Company. J. T. Tai and Company purchased jades in July of 1954. It is unclear when Frank Caro, C. T. Loo's associate and successor to C. T. Loo and Company, purchased items from Zhang Mei Chien.
 On September 1, 1952, C. T. Loo's associate, Frank Caro (1904--1980), took over daily operations of the New York business, operating as C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and
Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo's stock would be evenly divided and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company's gallery space. C. T. Loo Chinese Art kept the same stock number that C. T. Loo and Company assigned it when consigning for Zhang Naiji: J 44 (see note 2): "Jade dragon (pl. 55 #2) in form of curling dragon." See invoice from Frank Caro Chinese Art to Arthur M. Sackler, August 27, 1964, copy located in object file and full copy located in Freer and Sackler COM provenance files.
 In 1961, Loo and Caro's agreement ended. C. T. Loo and Cie., Paris, France, took control of C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York's stock that C. T. Loo had added to the inventory before his death in 1957. Frank Caro then opened
Frank Caro Chinese Art. Caro acquired pieces from Loo's original stock (the mode of acquisition is unknown). See invoice referenced in note 4.
 Pursuant to the agreement between Arthur M. Sackler and the Smithsonian Institution, dated July 28, 1982, legal title of the donated objects was transferred to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery on September 11, 1987.
- Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)
Zhang Naiji 1899-1948
Zhang Mei Chien 1900-1998
Dr. Arthur M. Sackler 1913-1987
C.T. Loo & Company 1914-1948
C.T. Loo Chinese Art 1953 - 1961
Frank Caro Chinese Art 1962-1980
- Published References
- C.T. Loo & Company, (Introduction) Lindsay Hughes Cooper. An Exhibition of Archaic Chinese Jades. Exh. cat. New York. pl. 48, 5.
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
- Web Resources
- Google Cultural Institute
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