Firman of the Emperor Akbar

Historical period(s)
Mughal dynasty, 1604
Mughal School
Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper
H x W: 87.6 x 40.6 cm (34 1/2 x 16 in)
Credit Line
Purchase — funds provided by the Friends of the Freer and Sackler Galleries in honor of Milo C. Beach
Freer Gallery of Art
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view
Calligraphy, Document


emperor, flower, India, Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858), WWII-era provenance

A.C. Ardeshir, Bombay, India and Windsor, England [1]

Family of A.C. Ardeshir, by descent [2]

To 2001
Terence McInerney Fine Arts Ltd., New York City, to 2001

From 2001
Freer Gallery of Art, purchased from Terence McInerney Fine Arts Ltd. in 2001


[1] According to Curatorial Note 3, Terence McInerney, June 2001, in the object record. Also, this object, as with most objects in the Ardeshir collection, was sent to England prior to the outbreak of World War I (according to Curatorial Note 3, Terence McInerney, June 2001, in the object record).

[2] See note 1.

Previous Owner(s)

Terence McInerney Fine Arts Ltd.
A. C. Ardeshir

Published References
  • Iqbal Husain. Akbar's Farmans - A Study in Diplomatic. .
  • Irfan Habib. Three Early Farmans of Akbar, in Favour of Ramadas, the Master Dyer. .
  • Michael Brand, Glenn D. Lowry. Akbar's India: Art from the Mughal City of Victory. Exh. cat. New York. cat. 80, pp. 120, 156.
  • Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri. Akbar and His India. p. 266.
Collection Area(s)
South Asian and Himalayan Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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