Sixteen Luohan

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Artist: Fanlong 梵隆 (active mid-12th century)
Historical period(s)
Southern Song dynasty, mid-12th century
Ink on paper
H x W (image): 30.5 x 1062.5 cm (12 x 418 5/16 in)
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view


Arhat, baimiao style, Buddhism, China, Southern Song dynasty (1127 - 1279), WWII-era provenance
Provenance information is currently unavailable

To learn more about this and similar objects, visit Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy.

Published References
  • Thomas Lawton. "画中人 上海书画出版社." Chinese Figure Painting. Shanghai, China. .
  • China's Last Empire: The Art and Culture of the Qing Dynasty, 1644-1911. .
  • Nakata Yujiro, Fu Shen. O-bei shuzo Chugoku hosho meiseki shu (Masterpieces of Chinese Calligraphy in American and European Collections). 6 vols., Tokyo, 1981-1983. pls. 42-43.
  • Suzuki Kei. Chugoku kaiga shi. 8 vols., Tokyo, 1981-1988. pl. 31.
  • Helmut Brinker. Shussan Shaks in Sung and Yuan Painting. vol. 9 Washington and Ann Arbor. pl. 4.
  • Helmut Brinker. Ch'an Portraits in Landscape. vol. 27 New York and Honolulu, HI, 1973-1974. pp. 8-29, fig. 30.
  • Barbara Brennan Ford. The Self-Portrait of Sesson Shukei. vol. 35 New York and Honolulu, HI. p. 15, fig. 8.
  • Chang Wen-chi. "醉僧之意不在酒--宋代醉僧圖的意涵." Beyond Drunkenness: Song Paintings of Drunken Monk. vol. 33, no.4 Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. p. 31, fig. 13.
  • Richard K. Kent. Ding Yunpeng's Baimiao Lohans: A Reflection of Late Ming Lay Buddhism. Princeton. p. 76.
  • James Cahill. Chinese Painting. Treasures of Asia Geneva and Cleveland. p. 94.
  • Thomas Lawton. Chinese Figure Painting. Exh. cat. Washington, 1973. cat. 20, p. 98-101.
  • Paths to Perfection, Buddhist Art at the Freer/Sackler. Washington. pp. 162-163.
  • Richard M. Barnhart. Li Kung-lin's Hsiao-Ching t'u: Illustrations of the Classic of Filial Piety. 2 vols. Ann Arbor. pp. 201-203, microfilm 25.
  • Suzuki Kei. Chugoku kaiga sogo zuroku (Comprehensive Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Painting). 5 vols., Tokyo, 1982-1983. pp. 218-19.
  • Shane McCausland. Zhao Mengfu: Calligraphy and Painting for Khubilai's China. Hong Kong. p. 325, fig. 4.34.
  • Kathleen Yang. Through a Chinese Connoisseur's Eye: Private Notes of C.C. Wang. Beijing. p.338, fig.118.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy
Google Cultural Institute
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