Double-page painting in the Haft Manzar (Seven visages) by Hatifi (d.1521)

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Artist: Signed by Shaykhzada
Calligrapher: Mir Ali Haravi (died ca. 1550)
Historical period(s)
Shaybanid dynasty, Uzbek period, 1538 (944 A.H.)
Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper
H x W x D: 26.2 x 16.8 x 2.6 cm (10 5/16 x 6 5/8 x 1 in)
Uzbekistan, Bukhara
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view


Uzbek period (1500 - 1598), Uzbekistan, WWII-era provenance
Provenance research underway.

During much of the sixteenth century, the region of Transoxiana, present-day Uzbekistan, was controlled by the Shaybanid Uzbeks, a Turkish-speaking dynasty. This finely illustrated and illuminated manuscript was completed for Sultan Abu'l Ghazi Abdul Aziz Bahadur Khan (1534-1539), the fourth Shaybanid ruler and one of the most influential patrons of the arts of the book. Abdul Aziz Bahadur Khan gathered together the leading Persian calligraphers, painters, and illuminators, some of whom joined the court voluntarily, while others were brought by force.

The most celebrated artist was Shaykhzada, who is also responsible for the paintings in the Haft manzar. Trained by the legendary Timurid artist Behzad, Shaykhzada elaborated on late-fifteenth-century Timurid style by enhancing the jewel-like surfaces of his work.

Published References
  • Oleg Akimushkin, Priscilla P. Soucek. The Arts of the Book in Central Asia: 14th - 16th Centuries. London and Paris. pl. 73.
  • Mark Getlein. Gilbert's Living with Art., 7th edition. Boston. .
  • Martin Bernard Dickson, Stuart Cary Welch. The Houghton Shahnameh. 2 vols., Cambridge, Massachusetts. vol. 1: p. 40, figs. 41-42.
  • Dr. Esin Atil. Exhibition of 2500 Years of Persian Art. Exh. cat. Washington, 1971. cat. 30, pp. 1, 10-11.
  • Along the Silk Road. p. 14, fig. 1.
  • Fu Shen, Glenn D. Lowry, Ann Yonemura, Thomas Lawton. From Concept to Context: Approaches to Asian and Islamic Calligraphy. Exh. cat. Washington. cat. 49, pp. 104, 136-139.
  • Abolala Soudavar, Milo Cleveland Beach. Art of the Persian Court: Selections from the Art and History Trust Collection. New York. cat. nos.177,173, pp.189, 203, 196.
  • A.M. Kevorkian. Les Jardins du Desir: Sept Siecles de Peinture Persane. Paris. pp. 198-199.
  • Sheila Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom. The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250-1800. Yale University Press Pelican History of Art London. p. 208, fig. 265.
  • Exhibition of Persian Art. Exh. cat. New York. p. 258.
  • Mark Getlein. Living With Art., Ninth edition. New York. p. 412, fig. 18.7.
Collection Area(s)
Arts of the Islamic World
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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