Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings from the St. Petersburg Album

Artist: Bichitr (active between ca. 1615 -1640) Margins by Muhammad Sadiq
Historical period(s)
Mughal dynasty, Reign of Jahangir, ca. 1615-1618, margins 1747-48
Mughal Court
Mughal School
Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper
H x W (image): 25.3 x 18 cm (9 15/16 x 7 1/16 in)
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view

Album folio with painting

emperor, hourglass, India, moon, Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858), Reign of Jahangir (1605 - 1627), Sufi, Sufism, sun, WWII-era provenance
Provenance information is currently unavailable
Published References
  • Susan Stronge. "The Al Thani Collection." Bejewelled Treasures. .
  • Vera Keller. Air Conditioning Jahangir: The 1622 English Great Design, Climate, and the Nature of Global Projects. vol. 21, no. 3 Fall 2013., 2013. .
  • A. Azfar Moin. The Millennial Sovereign: Sacred Kingship & Sainthood in Islam. cover and p. 207.
  • Michael Kampen O'Riley. Art Beyond the West: The Arts of Western and Central Asia, India and Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Korea, the Pacific, Africa, and the Americas., 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ. pl. 3.35.
  • Heike Franke. Akbar und Gahangir: Untersuchungen zur politischen und religiosen Legitimation in Text und Bild. Bonner Islamstudien, no. 12. pl. 24.
  • Gloria K. Fiero. The Humanistic Tradition. 6 vols., , 5th edition. New York. .
  • Dresdener Kunstblätter 4/2017 - Engel. Dresden, Germany, April 2017. p. 14, fig. 4.
  • Ali Anooshahr. The Mughal Empire from Jahangir to Shah Jahan: Art, Architecture, Politics, Law and Literature. Mumbai, India. p. 23, fig. 1.
  • Kjeld von Folsach. The Human Figure in Islamic Art: Holy Men, Princes, and Commoners. Exh. cat. Denmark, October 2017. p. 36, fig. 10.
  • Empire and Art: British India. Art and Global Histories Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, January 2018. p. 40, plate 1.9.
  • Paula Henderson. Elysian Fields such as the poets dreamed of: The Mughal Garden in the Early Stuart Mind. vol. 10, issue 3 London, December 2009. pp. 42-43, fig. 12.
  • Abdelwahab Meddeb. Occident Visto desde Orient. Exh. cat. Barcelona. p. 45.
  • Anand Amaladass Gudrun Loewner. Christian Themes in Indian Art. India. p. 48.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. World Views: Topics in Non-Western Art., 1st edition. Boston. p. 57.
  • Christiane Gruber. Moon: A Voyage Through Time. Toronto, Ontario. p. 58 and 169, fig. 3 and plate 44.
  • Amina Taha Hussein-Okada. "La peinture en Inde." Painting in India. Sentiers d'Art Paris, France. p. 61.
  • Gerald MacLean Nabil Matar. Britain and the Islamic World. p. 73 and cover, fig. 5.
  • B.N. Goswamy. The Spirit of Indian Painting: Close Encounters with 101 Great Works, 1100-1900. Gurgaon, Haryana, India. pp. 98, 323.
  • Ideals of Beauty: Asian and American Art in the Freer and Sackler Galleries. Thames and Hudson World of Art London and Washington, 2010. pp. 112-113.
  • Milo Cleveland Beach. The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court., 2nd. Washington and Ahmedabad, India, 2012. cat. 22C, pp. 126-8.
  • Oleg Grabar. Masterpieces of Islamic Art: The Decorated Page from the 8th to the 17th Century., English edition. New York. pp. 134-5, pl. 62.
  • Encompassing the Globe: Portugal and the World in the 16th & 17th Centuries. Exh. cat. Washington, 2007. P-68, p. 136.
  • Jos Gommans. The Unseen World: India and The Netherlands from 1550. Nijmegen, Netherlands. p. 160, fig. 2.59.
  • Joseph M. Dye. The Arts of India. London. p. 216, fig. 70.
  • Stephen Frederic Dale. The Muslim Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals., 1st edition. New York and Cambridge. p. 242, fig. 21.
  • Richard C. Martin. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. 2 vols., . p. 302.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. A History of Western Art., 4th edition. Boston. p. 352, fig. 19.22.
  • et. al. The Heritage of World Civilization. combined volume, , 6th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ. p. 476.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. Art Across Time., 4th ed. New York. pp. 660-662, fig. w8.2.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. Art Across Time., 3rd edition. Boston. p. 668, fig. W8.2.
Collection Area(s)
South Asian and Himalayan Art
Web Resources
Worlds within Worlds: Imperial Paintings from India and Iran
Google Cultural Institute
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