Reportedly discovered in archeological site at Shouzhou, Anhui Province, China 
Zhang Naiji (1899-1948), Shanghai, China and New York, NY from at least February 1939 
Freer Gallery of Art, purchased through C. T. Loo & Company, New York from Zhang Naiji on April 17, 1939 
 According to information provided by Zhang Naiji to John E. Lodge at the time of acquisition, see J.E.Lodge's note, 1939, in F1939.6 object file. Zhang Naiji stated that he had obtained the jades, selected by the Freer Gallery from a group of about 350 pieces offered for sale (F1939.6-F1939.26 and F1939.28-F1939.33), at the places of their excavation. Lodge commented in his 1939 note: "I see no good reason to doubt [Zhang's] statement. I have, therefore, specified Shou Chou, or An-yang, or Lo-yang (Chin Ts'un) as the source of a piece in accordance with Mr. Chang's [Zhang's] designations given in my presence and recorded by me."
 See note 1. See also "List of objects contemplated for purchase by Freer Gallery of Art," approved on February 1, 1939, Freer Gallery of Art Purchase List file, copy in object file. According to an annotation on the list, the purchase was made from C. T. Loo & Company, New York acting as agent for the owner and the payment was made on April 17, 1939. Zhang Naiji (also known as N.C. Chang) was a businessman, born to a prestigious family in Zhejiang that made their wealth in the silk and salt industries. He collected ancient Chinese art objects and Chinese coins. Zhang amassed his collection whilst living in Shanghai, before leaving for America in 1938. Zhang did not return to China until 1946. While the earliest documentation of Zhang's ownership of the jade dates to February 1939, we know that he acquired the objects in China before his departure.
 See "List of objects contemplated for purchase by Freer Gallery of Art," cited in note 2.
- Previous Owner(s)
C.T. Loo 1880-1957
Zhang Naiji 1899-1948
C.T. Loo & Company 1914-1948
- Published References
- Richard Ettinghausen, Ernst Kuhnel. A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present. 6 vols., London and New York, 1938 - 1939. vol. 3: pp. 2583-2584.
- Sotheby's (London). Catalogues of Valuable Oriental Manuscripts and Miniatures, Comprising a series of very important Indian drawings by the court painters of the great Moghul emperors, Shah Jahan and Aurangzib, the property of a gentleman. London, December 12-13, 1929. .
- William Charles White. Tombs of Old Lo-yang: A Record of the Construction of a Group of Royal Tombs at Chin-ts'un, Honan, Probably Dating 550 B.C., 1st ed. Shanghai. cat. 337a, pls. 138-139.
- Sueji Umehara. Rakuyo kinson kobo shuei [Objects from the Ancient Tombs at Chin Ts'un, Lo-yang]. Kyoto. pl. 88, fig. 3.
- Georges Marteau, Henri Vever. Miniatures Persanes: tirees des collections de M.M. Henry d'Allemagne, Claude Anet, Henri Aubrey... 2 vols., Paris, June-October 1912. pl. 13.
- Dr. Berthold Laufer. Archaic Chinese Jades Collected in China by A. W. Bahr, now in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. New York. pl. 34, 3.
- Edward S. Morse. Additional Notes on Arrow Release. Salem, Massachusetts. .
- Edward S. Morse. Ancient and Modern Methods of Arrow Release. vol. 17, no. 10-12, Salem, Massachusetts, October - December 1885. .
- Séraphin Couvreur. Li ki: Ou Memoires sur les bienseances et les ceremonies., 2nd ed. Ho Kien fou. vol. 1: p. 621.
- Alfred Salmony. 3000 Years of Chinese Jade. Exh. cat. New York, January 10 - February 1, 1939. cat. 201, p. 79.
- Thomas Lawton. Chinese Art of the Warring States Period: Change and Continuity, 480-222 B.C. Washington, 1982-1983. cat. 111, p. 164.
- Dr. Berthold Laufer. Jade: A Study in Chinese Archaeology and Religion. Anthropological series, vol. 10 Chicago. pp. 223, 229-231, fig. 122, 136.
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
- Web Resources
- Google Cultural Institute
- SI Usage Statement
Usage Conditions Apply
CC0 - Creative Commons (CC0 1.0)
Usage Conditions Apply
Chrome users: right click on icon, select "save link as..."
Internet Explorer users: right click on icon, select "save target as..."
Mozilla Firefox users: right click on icon, select "save link as..."