Worch et Cie, Paris, to 1910 
From 1910 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Worch et Cie in 1910 
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 
 See Original Kakemono and Makimono List, L. 653, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. This object exhibits seals, colophons, or inscriptions that could provide additional information regarding the object’s history; see Curatorial Remarks in the object record for further details.
 See note 1.
 The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.
- Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)
Worch et Cie (C.L. Freer source)
Charles Lang Freer 1854-1919
Guanyin and about fourty Luohans involved in various activities with several attendants in a mountainous landscape. On the painting, one signature on lower left end; Eleven seals in total, with five half seals on the right end. Three colophons follow the painting, each bearing a signature and one seal.
First certificate following the picture reads: "After the death of Buddha, the people began to become indulgent and dogmatic. All sages and good wise men retired from society, and only left their doctrines to warn the people. The people did not understand, and the famous Mountains O-mei, Wu-t'ai, Lu-san, T'ian-t'ai issue rays twenty or thirty feet long and men see the light indistinctly. This scroll is the picture of Ta-o-rakan. It is like a true scenery, and at the same time like an imaginary sight. Lung-mien seems to have got spiritual help, because the picture is so good." Signed: "Chang Yu." Seal below signature reads: "Chang Yu's private seal." (Note: O-mei is in Ssu-chuan province, Wu-t'ai is in Honan province, Lu-san is in Kiangsi province, and Tian-tai is in Fokien province.)
Second certificate reads: "The picture to the right was painted by Li Lung-mien. It is a light sketch of Rakans, and may be said an insurpassable art. He only used light ink and light strokes, and did not use any paint or powder (white paint), and gave the varied aspects. I think this scroll is as good as the paintings of the two famous painters Ku and Lo. I admire Lung-mien very much." Signed: "Chang-sa (capital of Honan province) Li Tung-yang." (famous prime minister of Ming Dynasty.) Seal below signature reads: "Hsi-ai."
Third certificate reads: "The Rakans august features express their spiritual wisdom. Yen-teng (Buddhist god) and Ming-ch'in (also Buddhist god) cannot be compared with the Rakans. But the principles of 'No life' cannot be explained in the picture." (A poem by) signed: "Wang Yu-feng." Seal below signature reads: "Wang's seal."
Two seals above the signature and two below it. At the right, five half-seals, one with a secret signature written on it. Following the painting come three certificates, each with a seal, the first seal being a private seal of Chang Yu and the second certificate being signed by Li Tung-yang, a famous Prime Minister of the Ming dynasty.
Right end of painting: Half seal in upper corner on painting reads: "Preserved in the Hall of ---." Second half seal on painting, slightly below center, reads: "To be handed down to the descendants of ---." Third half seal on painting near bottom reads: "Chin-chung." Fourth half seal on painting at lower right hand corner reads: "Teng Wen-yuan." Oblong half seal on painting to the left of the above two seals reads: "Hsuin-t'ang." Secret signatures upon the above oblong seal unreadable, as secret signatures always are.
Left end of painting: First seal on painting near upper left hand corner reads: "I --- Ko preserves this." Second seal reads: "Li Family keeps this." Signature on painting at left end of scroll reads: "Lung-mien Chu-shih Li Kung-lin paint." Third seal (on which the signature is written) reads: "Lung-mien Chu-shih." Fourth seal on painting in lower left corner reads: "Tsuei-li-san-jen." Fifth (next) seal, only half left, reads: "K'ung."
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
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