Washington Manuscript I – Deuteronomy and Joshua (Codex Washingtonensis)

One hundred two leaves (anciently sewed). Upright, square uncial script in dark brown and red ink; two columns to a page.

For a full description of the manuscript, see: Sanders, Henry A. “The Old Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection” (University of Michigan Humanistic Series, Volume V111), Part I. (The McMillan Co., 1912 and 1917).

View right to left

Historical period(s)
early 5th century
Medium
Ink on parchment
Dimensions
H x W: 30.6 x 25.8 cm (12 1/16 x 10 3/16 in)
Geography
Egypt
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number
F1906.272
On View Location
Currently not on view
Classification(s)
Manuscript
Type

Manuscript

Keywords
Christianity, Egypt, Old Testament
Provenance

To 1906
Ali Arabi, Giza, Egypt, to 1906 [1]

From 1906 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Ali Arabi in Giza, Egypt, on December 19, 1906 [2]

From 1920
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [3]

Notes:

[1] See Original Miscellaneous List, Biblical Mss. Section, S.I. 1456, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.

[2] See note 1.

[3] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s)

Ali Arabi (C.L. Freer source)
Charles Lang Freer 1854 - 1919

Description

One hundred two leaves (anciently sewed). Upright, square uncial script in dark brown and red ink; two columns to a page.

For a full description of the manuscript, see: Sanders, Henry A. "The Old Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection" (University of Michigan Humanistic Series, Volume V111), Part I. (The McMillan Co., 1912 and 1917).

Label

This parchment codex comprises one hundred two leaves divided into quires (booklets). Each quire is numbered on the first page. Because the numbers begin with 37 and continue through 60, it is clear that the first thirty-six quires are missing-likely the books of Genesis through Numbers.
Chapter divisions of irregular length are signaled by an enlarged initial letter outside the left margin. The manuscript also offers an early example of rubrication (from the Latin rubricare<, "to color red"), writing in red ink to give visual emphasis to the divisions of a text. Rubrication became a common practice in European manuscripts beginning in the seventh century. Various scribes worked on this manuscript, but only two hold much interest. One, probably contemporary with the original scribe, made some corrections. A century or two later, another scribe noted in a cursive script where a reading was to begin and end, and when the reading was to be done.

Published References
  • Caspar Rene Gregory. Das Freer Logion. Gregory, C.R. Versuche und entwurfe. 1 Leipzig. pls. 1, 2.
  • The Manuscripts of the Gospel in the Freer Collection. vol. 29 Ann Arbor, March 1913. frontispiece.
  • Freer Gallery of Art. Gallery Book I: Exhibition of July 19, 1933. Washington, July 19, 1933. .
  • Facsimiles of Ancient Manuscripts: First Series. 2 vols., London, 1903 - 1912. pl. 202.
  • Septuaginta: id est Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta LXX interpretes. 2 vols., Stuttgart. .
  • Alan E. Brooke Norman McLean. The Old Testament in Greek: According to the Text of Codex Vaticanus, supplemented from other Uncial Manuscripts, with a Critical Apparatus Containing the Variants of the Chief Authorities for the Text of the Septuagint. 3 vols., Cambridge, 1917-1940. .
  • introduction by Henry A. Sanders. Facsimile of the Washington Manuscript of Deuteronomy and Joshua in the Freer Collection. Ann Arbor, 1910. pp. 1-201.
  • Frederic G. Kenyon. Recent Development in the Textual Criticism of the Greek Bible. London. pp. 26, 92, 107-8.
  • Henry A. Sanders. New Manuscripts of the Bible from Egypt. 2nd series, vol. 12, no. 1 Boston, January - March, 1908. pp. 49-55, pl. 2.
  • Ideals of Beauty: Asian and American Art in the Freer and Sackler Galleries. Thames and Hudson World of Art London and Washington, 2010. pp. 52-53.
  • Harry M. Orlinsky. On the Present State of Proto-Septuagint Studies. vol. 61, no. 2 Baltimore, June 1941. pp. 81-91.
  • Dr. Michelle Brown. In The Beginning: Bibles Before the Year 1000. Exh. cat. Washington, 2006. cat. 27, p.135,148-9, 267.
  • Wilhelm Schubart. Palaeographie: Erster teil, Griechische Palaeographie. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 1 Munich. p. 144, fig. 102.
  • Edwards Park. Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution., 1st ed. Washington and New York. p. 329.
  • Max L. Margolis. The Washington MS. of Joshua. vol. 31, no. 4 New Haven, October 1911. pp. 365-367, pl. 4.
  • Seymour de Ricci W. J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. 3 vols., New York, 1935-1940. cat. 1, pp. 464-5.
Collection Area(s)
Biblical Manuscripts
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
Rights Statement

Copyright with museum