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IIIF

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At A Glance

  • Period

    2nd century BCE
  • Geography

    China
  • Material

    Jade (nephrite)
  • Dimension

    H x W x D: 1.5 x 4.9 x 1.3 cm (9/16 x 1 15/16 x 1/2 in)
  • Accession Number

    S2012.9.1133
  • EDAN ID

    edanmdm:fsg_S2012.9.1133

Object Details

  • Previous custodian or owner

    Zhang Naiji 張乃驥 (1899-1948)
    Zhang Mei Chien (1900-1998)
    C.T. Loo Chinese Art (1953-1961)
    Frank Caro Chinese Art (1962-1980)
    J.T. Tai & Co. (established in 1950)
    Dr. Paul Singer (1904-1997)
  • Provenance

    1931 to 1932
    Likely discovered in tomb located in Shouxian, Anhwei Province, China [1]
    To 1948
    Zhang Naiji (1899–1948), Shanghai, China then New York, NY [2]
    1948 to early 1950s
    Zhang Mei Chien (1901–c.1955), New York, NY inherited upon her husband’s death [3]
    Possibly around 1954 to 1961
    C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York, NY possibly purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY in the early 1950s [4]
    Possibly from 1961 to 1964
    Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, NY, mode of acquisition unknown [5]
    Possibly to late 1950s
    J. T. Tai & Company, New York, NY possibly purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY during July 1954 [6]
    To 1997
    Dr. Paul Singer, Summit, NJ purchased from J. T. Tai & Company, C. T. Loo & Company, or Frank Caro Chinese Art in New York [7]
    1997 to 1999
    In the custody of Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, upon Paul Singer’s death in January 1997 and loan agreement between Executors of Singer Estate and the Gallery in February 1997 [8]
    From 1999
    Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of the Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, Paul Singer, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, and the Children of Arthur M. Sackler [9]
    Notes:
    [1] Object published in Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition (Philadelphia: The University Museum, February 1940), cat. 258. Catalogue entry notes discovery site as Shou-hsien (now known as Shouxian), where tombs were exposed between 1931 and 1932. During this period the tombs were never properly excavated.
    [2] Zhang Naiji (also known as N.C. Chang) was a businessman, born to a prestigious family in Zhejiang that made their wealth in the silk and salt industries. He collected ancient Chinese art objects and Chinese coins. Zhang amassed his collection whilst living in Shanghai, before leaving for America in 1938, and acquired his objects onsite of archeological excavations (see: Alfred Salmony, Chinese Jade through the Wei Dynasty. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1963: 115.).
    Zhang lent his collection anonymously to Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition. We know his identity through letters housed in the Department of Archives, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (see: letter, C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 25 October 1939 and letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 16 December 1939), copies in F|S COM provenance files. The exhibition was entirely organized by C. T. Loo & Company, New York. Letters exchanged between C. T. Loo and the director of The University Museum, Mr. Horace H.F. Jayne, reveal that Zhang Naiji owned the objects and C. T. Loo & Company had the collection on consignment (see: letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 28 May 1939 and letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 23 October 1940, copies on COM provenance files). C. T. Loo & Company kept the jade collection on consignment from 1940 through Zhang’s death in 1948, inventorying the pieces with a prefix “J” and labeling each item as “Chang Collection.”
    [3] Zhang Mei Chien, Zhang Naiji’s wife, assumed ownership upon his death in 1948. She sold several pieces from her husband’s collection to both C. T. Loo & Company (which later operated as Frank Caro Chinese Art) and J. T. Tai & Company. She sold to J. T. Tai & Company in July 1954 (for example, see J. T. Tai & Company Stock Record YT 886 and YT 895, copies in COM provenance files). It is unclear when C. T. Loo Chinese Art purchased items from Zhang Mei Chien. C. T. Loo Chinese Art was led by Frank Caro, the famed dealer C. T. Loo’s associate.
    [4] See note 3. On September 1, 1952, C. T. Loo’s associate, Frank Caro (1904-1980) took over daily operations of the New York business, operating at C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo’s stock would be evenly divided and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company’s gallery space.
    [5] In 1961, Loo and Caro’s agreement ended. C. T. Loo & Cie., Paris, France took control of C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York’s stock that C. T. Loo had added to the inventory before his death in 1957. Frank Caro then opened Frank Caro Chinese Art. Caro acquired pieces from Loo’s original stock (the mode of acquisition is unknown) and also featured jades with a Zhang provenance in his stock.
    [6] See note 3. J. T. Tai & Company sold several jades with Zhang provenance to Dr. Paul Singer.
    In Paul Singer’s memoirs, he reports that he acquired 17 “of the Chiang Nai-chi jades, some of which Mr. Chang lent to the 1935-1936 International Exhibition of Chinese Art,” from J. T. Tai & Company. See: Reminiscences of a Transient Custodian,” ms. Paul Singer Papers, F|S Archives, p.83-84.
    [7] Dr. Paul Singer had this object in his collection in the 1980s, when writing his memoirs (see note 5). The collection of Chinese art and antiquities assembled by Paul Singer over time was purchased by him on behalf of Arthur M. Sackler, Jullian Sackler, The Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities and was later transferred to the children of Arthur M. Sackler.
    [8] The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art came into the custody of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, upon Paul Singer’s death in January 1997 and a loan agreement between the Executors of the Singer Estate and the Gallery in February 1997.
    [9] See “The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art Gift Agreement,” March 1999, F|S COM Office. The object was formally accessioned into the museum collection in 2012.
  • Origin

    China
  • Credit Line

    The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; a joint gift of the Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, Paul Singer, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, and the Children of Arthur M. Sackler
  • Type

    Weapon and Armament
  • Restrictions and Rights

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