Disk (bi) with raised uniform curls

Detail of a pattern
Image 1 of 2
Download Image IIIF

Terms of Use

Creative Commons

At A Glance

  • Period

    475-221 BCE
  • Geography

    purportedly found at Shaanxi province, Xi'an, China
  • Material

    Jade (nephrite)
  • Dimension

    Diam: 13.6 cm (5 3/8 in)
  • Accession Number



Object Details

  • Provenance

    Reportedly excavated in Xi’an, Shaanxi [1]
    Duanfang (1861–1911) [2]
    To 1919
    You Xiaoxi (late 19th–early 20th century), Shanghai to 1919 [3]
    Charles Lang Freer (1854–1919), purchased from You Xiaoxi in New York, NY, in 1919 [4]
    From 1920
    Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [5]
    [1] According to Curatorial Remark 1 in the object record: “Formerly in the collection of the Viceroy Tuan Fang [Duanfang], and said to have been excavated at Sianfu [Xi’an], Shensi [Shaanxi].”
    [2] See note 1.
    [3] See Original Miscellaneous List, S.I. 1403, p. 329, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.
    [4] See note 3.
    [5] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer’s gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.
  • Collection

    Freer Gallery of Art Collection
  • Exhibition History

    Chinese Art of the Warring States Period: Change and Community, 480-222 B.C. (September 30, 1982 to February 17, 1983)
    Ancient Chinese Jade (September 4, 1980 to March 6, 1981)
  • Previous custodian or owner

    Duanfang 端方 (1861-1911)
    You Xiaoxi 游篠溪 (late 19th-early 20th century) (C.L. Freer source)
    Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919)
  • Origin

    purportedly found at Shaanxi province, Xi'an, China
  • Credit Line

    Gift of Charles Lang Freer
  • Type

    Ceremonial Object
  • Restrictions and Rights

    CC0 - Creative Commons (CC0 1.0)

    This image is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions). You can copy, modify, and distribute this work without contacting the Smithsonian. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

    The information presented on this website may be revised and updated at any time as ongoing research progresses or as otherwise warranted. Pending any such revisions and updates, information on this site may be incomplete or inaccurate or may contain typographical errors. Neither the Smithsonian nor its regents, officers, employees, or agents make any representations about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the information on the site. Use this site and the information provided on it subject to your own judgment. The National Museum of Asian Art welcomes information that would augment or clarify the ownership history of objects in their collections.

Keep Exploring